• common illnesses
• addiction (alcohol, drugs, smoking)
• stress, psychic diseases

In Hungary most people have coronary diseases or suffer from cancer. I think the majority of people don’t pay enough attention to their health and go and see a doctor only when it’s too late.
In my opinion, in Africa the biggest problem is the spread of AIDS, which is due to ignorance, lack of money and education. In the developed countries the most serious issue is cancer because in most of the cases it is incurable.
When you are unwell, you see the doctor in his surgery or send for him. From 15th February you have to pay visit fee. You tell him your trouble and he examines you by sounding your lings, listening to your heart, taking your blood pressure, feeling your pulse and taking your temperature. If it is nothing serious, there is nothing much to worry about, but you may have to take some prescription. He may put you on a diet, tell you to stay away from work or put you on the sick list.
If you are in need of urgent hospital treatment, the doctor will ring for the ambulance. As polyclinics are not self-sufficient for every kind of medical examination, you may be sent to hospital for observation.
Medical attendance covers the emergency medical- and accident attendance, hospital treatment and recourse of family doctor.
Herbs can replace medicines in certain cases and provide a more natural treatment. Herbs are mainly used to make teas. I believe in natural therapy not tablets and medicines.
Unfortunately many people are overweight in Hungary. People don’t care about leading a healthy way of life. They eat too much and too many fatty foods and they don’t do any sports. They don’t even walk, but use their cars or public transport.
There are addictions, which are very harmful, for example: smoking, drugs and drinking.
Smoking is very harmful and it’s very difficult to give up smoking. I think smokers smoke cigarettes out of sheer habit not for the taste and flavour of cigarette.
Drinking coffee is harmful too, but some people who has low blood pressure it’s helpful.
I think drugs are the most dangerous passion because it’s crocked up the body so quickly. Taking drugs weakens the addicts’ immune system, makes them susceptible to strokes and causes anemia. Young people try drugs mostly because of curiosity. Young people’s idols, famous pop stars, actors and actresses, also take drugs and show a bad example for them. Giving up drugs is very difficult because drugs are extremely addictive. I think it is almost impossible to give up drugs without professional help.
Drinking is as dangerous as taking drugs, both of them mend the feelings for a short time. Adults should call the attention of young people to the health hazards of drinking. They should make teenagers realize that alcohol is as addictive as drugs and cigarettes. Drinking is especially dangerous for young people as their liver functions are not developed enough to stop alcohol from destroying their brain cells.
I think it’s impossible to stop people from smoking and drinking with laws or regulations. Producing and distributing cigarettes and alcoholic drinks is a very profitable business.
Stress is a common trouble in our days. The most typical form is the stress at occupation. Future exercises and quick worktempo cause quick pulse, strain and phobia. This is a psychological trouble, such as anorexia, sexual problems, phobias (hydrophobia, claustrophobia), inside illnesses, etc.

• catering facilities
• banks
• repair and maintenance
• emergency services (ambulance, police, Automobile Association)

There are several services in the world, such as restaurants, banks, hairdressers, dry-cleaners, patrol services and so on.
People are usually in a hurry and they don’t have time to wait for meals in restaurants. They go to self-service restaurants, which don’t offer many kinds of dishes, but the service is quick and the food is acceptable. There are cheaper and some more expensive ones. You can buy your food at takeaway restaurants if you don’t have time to cook but would like to eat at home. Fast food restaurants are very popular but not so healthy. I like these foods but I eat there rarely.
Many students complain about the canteen food, saying that it is tasteless and full of fat. I think the situation is not that bad. The kitchen provides food for several hundred students a day and can’t afford to use the best ingredients. There are some dishes that they cook really well.
In Hungary the number of foreign restaurants is growing. There are more and more Chinese, Greek, Italian, Turkish and Arabic restaurants. You can also find other international restaurants, mainly in big towns.
I go to the hairdresser’s to have my hair cut two- or three times a year because I grow my hair and I dye it at home.
It’s much cheaper to do all the work yourself and with the help of your family and friends, but you might not be so satisfied with the result. Employing professionals is quite expensive but they work faster and better.
I take suits, overcoats, leather jackets, fur coats and other clothes made of materials that can’t be washed to the dry-cleaner’s.
At the post office you can buy stamps, envelopes, cards, scratchcards and so on. You can post letters and parcels, pay your bills, transfer money, etc. I transfer money by internet.
Banks offer a wide choice of services. They deal with savings, payment services, lending, insurance, foreign currency exchanges, leasing, giving advice on investments, and so on. Nowadays more and more banks provide telebanking services. It means that people use their phones or the internet to give orders to the banks to carry out different kinds of business transactions for them.
Patrol services are ambulance, police, fire service and auto club. Ambulance callable in 104, police in 105 and fire service in 107 in emergencies. In Hungary these services are not so quick and modern. Auto club helps the motorists in default. It’s available in 188, and it has 80 modern “yellow angels’.
• everyday shopping
• buying consumer durables
• shopping habits
• sales, discounts
• the role of advertisements
• consumer society
I buy some bread and milk almost every day in a little shop opposite my house, but we go to a big hypermarket to buy other all things for the household usually every third weekend.
We always buy big hunks of cheese, crates of yoghurt and kephir, tubs of margarine and butter, sugar, flour, cooking oil, spices, mineral water, cereals, meat, cleaning supplies, domesticities, nappy, consumer durables, electrical goods, toys, etc., so almost everything. Vegetables and fruits we buy at the market near my house because these goods are fresh there.
Advantages of hypermarkets are that you can find almost everything from food to gardening equipment in one place and there is also a wide range of goods. There is usually a place where the children can play while their parents are shopping. The hypermarkets offer some products at reduced prices and cards for regular customers. With these cards you can earn points that you can exchange for goods or services.
I like shopping in hypermarket because they’re opened non-stop and I can buy everything in one place at a low price. The disadvantages of hypermarkets are that they are often incredibly crowded, especially at weekends. It’s difficult to move with fully packed trolleys among the shelves. These hypermarkets are generally far from the town centre and it can take long to get there and home. Fortunately there is a hypermarket near my house so we don’t have to travel a lot.
Usually we get catalogues from super- and hypermarkets about sales so we go to there at that time.
Recently I buy books and Avon essences by internet. It’s very comfortable and cheap, I like it.
In small shops the customer service is usually better than in bigger stores because the shop assistants consider the customers more important there. These shops are closer to your home and aren’t so crowded and you don’t have to stand in a long queue. Their disadvantages are that you can’t find as many brands as in big shops and they are more expensive.
I think I pertain to the majority, which do the shopping in hypermarkets.

 

• everyday transport
• public transport in the city
• intercity transport
• individual transport (cars, motorbikes, bicycles)
• public transport problems
• individual transport problems
There are several ways of travelling. People can travel by bicycle, motorcycle, car, taxi, bus, tram, trolleybus, underground, train, plane, ship, boat, hydroplane and so on.
There are many ways of getting about town. In most big cities people have a wide choice of tram, bus, trolley-bus and underground routes in addition to a taxi service. Trams, trolley-buses and buses stop to pick up passengers at special stops. During the morning rush hours, with so many people hurrying to work, the vehicles are usually overcrowded. During the evening rush hours, with everyone hurrying home, they are packed full, too.
You can buy railway tickets at newsagent’s, ticket offices, in shops, from ticket machines and in some towns from the drivers, which is always more expensive. Then you have to validate your ticket either punching it or stamping it. But if you have a monthly ticket, you don’t have to worry about buying a ticket because monthly and weekly tickets are valid for several journeys within a particular period of time. They are also cheaper than separate tickets. You can also buy half-yearly and yearly tickets.
I used to go to work by bus, underground and tram but nowadays we go to work by car with my husband and our daughter. It’s more comfortable and quicker than the public transport.
I don’t like public vehicles because they are slow and crowded, and the service is not frequent enough.
The fastest type is the underground because it isn’t influenced by weather or traffic conditions. In Hungary you can find it only in the capital.
People travel by taxi when they are in a hurry, when they have much to carry or when they are in unknown places. You go by taxi if there is no public transport or it isn’t operating because it’s too late.
The London underground (the Tube) is one of the largest in the world. It has 10 lines and nearly 300 stations. Underground called subway in New York and metro in Paris and many other cities.
Public transport can be made more environmentally friendly by replacing buses with trams and trolleybuses or running them on natural gas.
Parking is getting more and more difficult nowadays because the number of cars has increased dramatically.
In Hungary the point-to-point transport is very critical. Buses and trains are crowded, slow, expensive and often late.
• preparations
• favourite destinations
• types of trips (holiday, official, business, study, conferences)
• package tour (advantages, disadvantages)
If you travel to a foreign country you’ll need a valid passport. If you are travelling to certain countries, you have to apply for visas and you may also need certificates of vaccination. In some countries you have to be able to prove that you have either enough cash or an embossed bank card.
Most people prefer some kind of package holiday at a popular holiday resort, which means that everything is arranged for you and the price you pay includes transport, food and accommodation.
In Hungary, tourists can stay at hotels, motels, pensions, guest houses, youth hostels and in campsites.
In Great Britain there are hotels, inns, boarding houses, bed and breakfasts, youth hostels and campsites.
In the United States, instead of inns, boarding houses and bed and breakfasts, there are motels.
Hotels are classified according to the services they offer. Inns are pubs where people can stay the night. Boarding houses are private houses where you pay to sleep and eat. Bed and breakfasts are small hotels or private houses where you pay for a room and a meal in the morning. You can find motels along roads and motorways. They are cheap hotels for people travelling by car. Youth hostels provide cheap accommodation especially for students for a short period of time.
I think the most popular holiday places are in exotic countries, for example, Tunesia in Africa, India, Thailand, Canary-islands, Hawaii, Mauritius, Egypt, and so on. Lots of people go to Italy, Croatia and Greece too.
Holidays are more than relaxation because you can spend your time in an active way. You can walk long distances to get to know towns, visit museums, exhibitions and galleries, and even do some sports, like cycling, sailing or bungee jumping and parachuting.
Once I was parachuted with my husband by a motor-boat above the Mediterranean sea in Tunesia, and it was wonderful.
There are several ways of traveling: holiday, formal travelling, business travel, study journey and conference. Both of them are very useful, but you can relax and you can go sightseeing on your holiday.
I prefer package holidays because I like it when I don’t have to bother with organising anything. I just go to the travel agency and ask them to arrange the journey, the accommodation and all the programmes. We went to our honeymoon in this way to Tunesia, and it was wonderful. We were waited at the airport, the assistants told everything, a flight was beautiful, our travel guide waited for us at the airport in Tunesia and saw in us to the hotel, asked for our key, organised the programmes and we could ask for her with everything.
My friends, on the other hand, like to organise their holidays themselves because they got disappointed by some travel agencies. They search for addresses, call the places and book their accommodation.
Knowledge of foreign language is very important and it facilitates our situation everywhere, for example, at travelling, in restaurants, at shopping and so on.

• environmental problems
• environment protection
• home environment protection (selective waste collection, energy saving at home)
• weather, seasons

In Hungary in spring the weather is usually changeable. It can be quite warm and sunny, or cold and rainy and windy. Summer is hot, sultry and dry. Sometimes there are storms and even hail. People don’t like autumn very much because it is usually cold and rainy with strong wind. In winter the weather is cold, the temperature is usually below zero and it often snows. The mornings are foggy and frosty.
To tell the truth, I like summer and spring because I don’t have to dressed well.
Because of the greenhouse effects there isn’t winter, for example, this year it hasn’t snowed yet and the temperature is below zero rarely. The temperature has been increasing.
People usually listen to weather forecasts on radio or television. With the extensive use of computers and satellites weather forecasts have become more and more accurate.
The weather in Britian is very changeable and unpredictable even from one day to the next. This is due to the influence of southwestern winds blowing off the Atlantic and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream which modify the original temperate climate of the country.
There are many rainy days in the year, even in winter.
Nowadays the main problems are the greenhouse effect, deforestation, rivers being diverted, dams being built, erosion, rapid consumption of resources and commodities, and pollution of air and water. The most important consequence of the greenhouse effect is the warming of the earth which causes climate changes and melts polar icecaps. Global warming means the increase in the world’s temperatures. The greenhouse effect and the depletion of the ozone layer are believed to be its main causes. The ozone layer can be protected only by international cooperation. People should stop producing and using harmful products that damage the ozone layer. The melting of the polar caps results in the rising sea-levels. It will flood populated areas and agricultural land.
Industrial pollution and overexploitation of the forests must be drastically decreased. The seas are endangered by industrial and other forms of pollution, such as oil spills from tankers and oil rigs. Most vehicles run on petrol or gas. Recently car manufacturers have launched cars operating with electricity. There is research going on how other energy sources, such as solar energy and water, could be used for running vehicles.
Almost everything can be recycled, like plastic bottles, paper, clothes, cans and metal. I think more containers should be placed not only in towns but in villages.
In Hungary more and more regulations are enacted to protect wild animals. Both hunting and keeping them are strictly regulated, so the situation is getting better.
• telephones
• computers
• e-mail
• internet
In Hungary there are two types of public phone boxes. One which operates with coins, and another which operates with phonecards. But the number of public phone boxes fall off because of mobile phones.
A mobile phone has several functions, depending on its brand. In every mobile phone there’s a phone book, where you can store the numbers that you regularly call. In modern phones you can add voice labels to the numbers. You can send and receive SMSs, get information on calls and apply settings, e.g. the language, time and date, and handsfree function. They also include some extras, like alarm clock, timer, stop-watch, calculator and games.
In my opinion, you feel safer if you have a mobile phone because you will be able to ask for help if something happens to you. As almost everybody has a mobile phone nowadays, it’s a kind of an expectation for you to be contactable. Another reason for their popularity is that they are becoming cheaper and it’s possible to sign reasonable contracts with mobile telephone service providers.
I think the advantages of mobile phones are their disadvantages at the same time. It’s good to be contactable but it is sometimes disturbing that people can reach you everywhere.
It’s rude to use your mobile phone in public places, like libraries, cinemas, theatres, churches and temples, wardrooms in hospitals and schools and universities during classes.
Since when the computers appeared the function of fax machine lower because it’s quicker and the quality of computer is better.
Nowadays computers are used in all fields of life. You can find them in banks, post offices, shops, hospitals, restaurants, pharmacies, libraries, schools, offices, factories, homes and so on. Computers are used for storing data, word processing, keeping records, invoicing, managing production, etc. Traffic is also controlled with computers.
I have a laptop at home so I can surf the net, send e-mails, I do the shopping and I book cinema tickets or book seats at restaurants. Of course I can learn English by internet because there’re lots of online exercises.
Internet is helpful if someone live far from their families because he or she can keep contact with them by e-mail. They can write to their friends, relatives and colleagues. It’s better than telephone because you can contact more people at the same time and it’s more quicker than an ordinary letter.
Érd, Fogoly u.

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